WHAT TO DO?/ On the Significance of Science and Art


WHAT TO DO? (1887) by Leo Tolstoy
Translation by Isabel F. Hapgood

On the Significance of Science and Art


On the Significance of Science and Art


Chapter I

Chapter II

Chapter III

Chapter IV

Chapter V

Chapter VI

Chapter VII


  1. An omission by the censor, which I am unable to supply. TRANS.
  2. We designate as organisms the elephant and the bacterian, only because we assume by analogy in those creatures the same conjunction of feeling and consciousness that we know to exist in ourselves. But in human societies and in humanity, this actual sign is absent; and therefore, however many other signs we may discover in humanity and in organism, without this substantial token the recognition of humanity as an organism is incorrect.
  3. v prikusku, when a lump of sugar is held in the teeth instead or being put into the tea.

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